How to Use Transaction With Oracle Sql?

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To use transactions in Oracle SQL, you can use the BEGIN TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK statements.


The BEGIN TRANSACTION statement marks the beginning of a transaction. All SQL statements that are executed after this statement will be part of the transaction until it is committed or rolled back.


The COMMIT statement is used to save the changes made to the database during the transaction. Once a COMMIT statement is executed, the changes are permanently stored in the database.


The ROLLBACK statement is used to undo changes made during the transaction. If a ROLLBACK statement is executed, all changes made since the BEGIN TRANSACTION statement are undone.


Transactions are useful in Oracle SQL to ensure data integrity and consistency. By using transactions, you can group multiple SQL statements together and guarantee that either all of the statements are executed successfully or none of them are executed. This can help prevent data corruption and ensure that your database remains in a consistent state.

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What is a nested transaction in Oracle SQL?

A nested transaction in Oracle SQL is a transaction initiated within the scope of another transaction. This means that a new transaction is started while the parent transaction is still in progress.


In Oracle SQL, nested transactions can be achieved using the SAVEPOINT command, which allows you to create a point within a transaction from which you can rollback to if necessary.


However, it is important to note that Oracle does not fully support nested transactions as compared to other databases. Any commit or rollback within a nested transaction affects the entire transaction and cannot be individually committed or rolled back.


What is a transaction in Oracle SQL?

In Oracle SQL, a transaction is a sequence of one or more SQL statements that are executed as a single unit of work. A transaction begins with an explicit "BEGIN TRANSACTION" statement or an implicit statement such as executing a DML statement (e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) or a DDL statement (e.g. CREATE, DROP, ALTER).


During a transaction, changes made by the SQL statements are temporary until the transaction is either committed or rolled back. Committing a transaction makes the changes permanent in the database, while rolling back a transaction undoes all changes made since the beginning of the transaction.


Transactions are important in Oracle SQL to ensure data integrity and consistency in a database. They allow multiple operations to be treated as a single logical unit, ensuring that either all changes are applied successfully or none of them are.


What is the difference between commit and rollback in Oracle SQL transactions?

  • Commit: When a transaction is committed in Oracle SQL, the changes made within that transaction are permanently saved to the database. This means that the changes become permanent and cannot be rolled back.
  • Rollback: When a transaction is rolled back in Oracle SQL, all the changes made within that transaction are undone and the database is returned to its state before the transaction began. This means that the changes made in the transaction are discarded and not saved to the database.


In summary, committing a transaction makes the changes permanent and they cannot be undone, while rolling back a transaction undoes all changes made within that transaction.


How to handle errors in a transaction in Oracle SQL?

In Oracle SQL, you can handle errors in a transaction using the following methods:

  1. Use EXCEPTION block: You can enclose the statements that may cause errors within an EXCEPTION block. This block will catch any errors that occur during the execution of the SQL statements.
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BEGIN
  -- SQL statements that may cause errors

EXCEPTION
  WHEN OTHERS THEN
    -- Error handling code
END;


  1. Use PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION: You can use the PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION to create a separate transaction for error handling, allowing you to rollback the main transaction if an error occurs.
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CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE proc_name IS
  PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;
BEGIN
  -- Main transaction statements

EXCEPTION
  WHEN OTHERS THEN
    ROLLBACK;
    -- Error handling code
END;


  1. Use SAVEPOINT: You can set a SAVEPOINT within a transaction, allowing you to rollback to that point if an error occurs.
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SAVEPOINT sp_name;


  1. Use SQLERRM function: You can use the SQLERRM function to retrieve the error message associated with the last error that occurred in the session.
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DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLERRM);


By using these methods, you can effectively handle errors in a transaction in Oracle SQL and ensure the data integrity of your database.


What is a transaction isolation level in Oracle SQL?

A transaction isolation level in Oracle SQL refers to the level of isolation that determines how transactions interact with each other. Different isolation levels provide different levels of data consistency, concurrency, and performance. Oracle SQL offers the following transaction isolation levels:

  1. Read Uncommitted: Allows dirty reads, meaning a transaction can view uncommitted changes made by other transactions.
  2. Read Committed: Ensures that a transaction can only read committed data, avoiding dirty reads.
  3. Repeatable Read: Ensures that a transaction always sees the same data throughout its duration, avoiding non-repeatable reads.
  4. Serializable: Ensures the highest level of isolation by preventing all types of anomalies, including phantom reads.


By setting the appropriate transaction isolation level, users can control how transactions interact and ensure data consistency and integrity within the database system.


What is two-phase commit in Oracle SQL transactions?

Two-phase commit (2PC) is a protocol used to ensure the atomicity and consistency of transactions involving multiple databases or resources. In Oracle SQL transactions, 2PC is used to coordinate transactions across multiple Oracle databases to ensure that all changes are either committed on all databases or rolled back on all databases if a failure occurs.


The 2PC protocol involves two phases:

  1. Prepare Phase: In this phase, the coordinator (typically the transaction manager) asks each participant (database or resource) to prepare to commit the transaction. The participants then perform necessary checks and ensure they are ready to commit, but they do not actually commit yet.
  2. Commit Phase: If all participants respond positively in the prepare phase, the coordinator sends a commit request to all participants. This results in all participants committing the transaction simultaneously. If any participant responds negatively in the prepare phase or if there is a failure, the coordinator will send a rollback command to all participants to ensure that the transaction is rolled back on all databases.


By using the two-phase commit protocol, Oracle SQL transactions can maintain data integrity and consistency across multiple databases, even in the event of failures.

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